feed on fish, cuttlefish, crustaceans, and other small
sea animals. They are found in flocks even at sea. On
land the colonies often number in the hundreds of thousands.
Natural enemies of the penguin include leopard seals,
killer whales, and, in the case of young chicks and eggs,
the mating season the penguins of the Antarctic region
appear along desolate, ice-bound, or rocky coasts and
hop, jump, waddle, and toboggan toward favored breeding
sites. In many of these areas smooth paths have been worn
over hard rock formations by countless generations; the
birds use precisely the same paths as their antecedents
to approach the rookery.
the paths seem to be the most circuitous and difficult
routes to the rookery, and in some cases the sites are
located many kilometers from the ocean. More northern
species may be resident in the area of the rookery. The
emperor penguin breeds in one of the world's most inhospitable
regions during one of the coldest periods of the year,
laying and incubating its eggs in temperatures as low
as -62° C (-80° F).